Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
What is the relation between the pulmonary circulation, oxygenation and ventilation ?
- Ventilation refers to movement of CO2 out of the lungs during exhalation. This process differs from Oxygenation, the movement of oxygen into the lungs, though they are often interrelated. Normally, each alveolus is surrounded by a functionary capillary and carbon dioxide passes from the blood and is eliminated by breathing. Simultanously oxygen is absorbed from the alveolus into the capillary.
It is then transportet to the cells via the red blood cells. If either the pulmonary circulation or the alveoli is disrupted, a mismatch of blood flow (perfusion) to alveolar gas flow (ventilation) occurs. This is called a "ventilation-perfusion" defect and is common in many abnormal conditions such as pulmonary emboli.
What is Hypoxia?
- Hypoxia is lack of oxygen in the tissue of the body.
What is Hypoxemia?
- Hypoxemia is the lack of oxygen in the blood.
What are the signs and symptoms of a foreign body airway obstruction ?
- The patient may be present with choking, gagging, stridor, dyspnea or inability of speaking.
What causes laryngeal spasm?
- Laryngeal spasm is a closure of the vocal cords and surrounding muscles. A frequent cause is trauma from an overly aggressive intubation attempt. It may also occur following extubation, drowning and allergic shock.
What is meant by the partial pressure of a specific gas?
- The combined pressure of all atmospheric gases is the total pressure. At sea level the pressure should equal 100%.
The partial pressure is the pressure exterted by a specific atmospheric gas. The normal concentration of gasses in the atmosphre at sea level is: Nitrogen 78,62%, Oxygen 20,84%, water 0,5%.
What is the purpose of suctioning the upper airways?
- The upper airway is suctioned to remove fluid, blood or secretions, to prevent these substances from going into the lungs.
What are the general causes of respiratory distress?
- Causes of respiratory distress may include upper and lower airway obstruction, inadequate ventilation, impairment of the respiratory muscles, and impairment of the nervous system.
What is maximum pressure recommended for positive-pressure ventilation?
- The pressure of positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) should not exceed 30 cm of water.
What are the indications and contraindications of IPPB?
- IPPB is indicated when a concious or unconcious adult patient need a high concentration of oxygen. It is not indicated in noncompliant patients (breathing patients that fight the device), patients with poor tidal volume or small children.
What is the advantages of IPPB?
- IPPB can be self-administred and delivers a high volume and a high concentration of oxygen. There is no oxygen wasted because it is delivered in response to the inspiratory effort. The risk of overinflation is reduced due to the low pressure delivered.
What is the disadvantages of IPPB?
- With IPPB, lung compliance can not be monitered. Operating an oxygen source is needed. Complications include gastric distension caused by overinflation of the airway not being properly opened. Barotrauma can occur if IPPB is not handled properly.
Why is an endotracheal tube more likely to slide into the right mainstem bronchus than the left?
- Following the trachea the right mainstembronchus appears. The angle to enter the right bronchus is less angled than on the left side. Entering the left bronchus requeres a sharp turn, which is not likely to happen using an endotracheal tube.
I need an anti-kinking endotracheal tube - which should I choose?
- The Unoflex Reinforced tube is especially designed using a flat wire embedded in the wall, which stabilizes and prevents the tube from kinking.
If I want to take a sputum sample - which product should I choose?
- The Trachea Set enables simple and safe tracheobroncheal sample taking.
- The Muco-Safe is used for oropharyngeal mucus extraction
Where should the ET tube be cut “is there a mark”?
- The tube can be cut anywhere suitable as long as it is above the inflation line entry.
Is the warranty on the ET tube lost if the tube is cut to size?
- Unomedical investigates all cases where our products have failed during normal use procedures, also ET tubes which have been cut.
Do any of Unomedical’s ET tubes contain Latex?
- No all Unomedical’s ET tubes and packaging are completely free from natural or synthetic latex.
For how long can Unomedical’s ET tubes be left in situ?
- Endotracheal tubes are class 2a devices which means they are approved for use up to 30 days. Unomedical recommends for normal hospital guide lines to be followed.
How much air should be filled into the cuff?
- Unomedical recommends that the pressure in the cuff is measured with a cuff pressure manometer. Following international standards the pressure should not exceed 25-30 cm H2O.
Can the products: ‘Stylets’ or ‘ET tubes’ be reused if sterilized again?
- All Unomedical’s products are single use and should never be re-sterilized or re-used.
Are there any risks by MRI-scanning a patient who is intubated with one of Unomedical’s ET tube?
- Patients who are equipped with a reinforced ETT tube should not go into MRI. The cuffed ETT tubes have a small metal spring in the valve in the pilot balloon which involves no risk during MRI-scanning.
Why are the connectors on the size 2.0 and 2.5 ET tubes not colour coded?
- Size 2.0 and 2.5 ETT tubes are to small to allow any suction catheter to fit into them; therefore these small ETT tubes are not part of the colour coding system.
Why is the connector a different design/shape to the one we are used to?
- The connector has a design that allows for a good grip and thereby eases detachment of the connector.